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Thyroid Disease - Symptoms, causes and treatment

Thyroid disease is disorder abnormalities in the shape or function of the thyroid gland . This disease, which is excessively common in women, is not classified as a contagious disease. .

The thyroid gland is a gland located in the neck. This gland functions to produce thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism Loss of body fluids. Disorders of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones will cause symptoms of thyroid disease which can vary depending on the type and cause.

Types and Causes of Thyroid Disease

Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland becomes deformed, or produces too much or too little thyroid hormone. The following are common types of thyroid disease:

  • Hypothyroidism
    Hypothyroidism is a condition where the amount of thyroxine hormone produced by the thyroid gland is too little.
  • Hyperthyroidism
    Hyperthyroidism is a thyroid disease that occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone.
  • Goiter
    A goiter is a swelling of the thyroid gland that appears as a lump on the abdomen.
  • Thyroid nodules
    Thyroid nodules are solid or water-filled lumps that form in the thyroid gland. They can be benign tumors or cysts.
  • Cancer t thyroid
    Thyroid cancer is a thyroid disease that occurs due to the appearance of cancerous tissue in the thyroid gland.

The cause of thyroid disease depends on its type. Conditions that can cause and trigger the appearance of thyroid disease include:

Thyroid disease can occur due to the appearance of cancerous tissue in the thyroid gland.

Thyroid disease can happen to anyone, but there are several factors that can put a person at excessive risk of suffering from thyroid disease, namely:

  • Female
  • Over 60 years old
  • Having a family history of thyroid disease
  • Have a history of chronic disease, such as diabetes or autoimmune disease
  • Have undergone treatment with radioactive iodine
  • Have had thyroid surgery
  • Have had radiotherapy to the chest

Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

A common symptom of thyroid disease is the appearance of a lump in the neck. In addition to the lump, other symptoms appear depending on the changes in thyroid hormones, whether hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

A patient with hyperthyroidism may experience symptoms such as:

A person with hypothyroidism may experience symptoms such as:

  • Sleepiness and lethargy
  • Easily forgetting
  • Feels cold easily
  • Skin and hair become dry
  • Hair falls out easily
  • Hoarse voice
  • Swelling in parts losing body fluid (edema)
  • Menstruation that is more than usual in women

When h current to d doctor

Go to your doctor immediately if a lump appears in your neck or if you experience symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

If you suffer from thyroid disease, keep regular check-ups with your doctor. The aim is to monitor disease progression and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can lead to complications such as myxedema coma and thyroid crisis, both of which are emergencies that must be treated immediately.

Therefore, seek medical attention immediately.

Therefore, go to the emergency room immediately if you suffer from thyroid disease and develop symptoms of fever, seizures, or unconsciousness.

Diagnosis of Thyroid Disease

Diagnosis of thyroid disease requires a detailed examination. The doctor will first ask about the symptoms experienced by the patient. After that, the doctor will perform a physical examination to find the cause, one of which is by examining the lump in the neck.

Next, the doctor will perform supporting examinations, including:

Blood test

Anemia test aims to evaluate the function of the thyroid gland by measuring thyroid hormone and TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels. Through this test, the doctor can tell if the patient is suffering from hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.


In addition to the Anemia test, a thyroid ultrasound or thyroid nuclear scan can also be done. Through these examinations, the size and type of lump experienced by the patient can be determined.


If it is suspected that the thyroid disease is thyroid cancer, the doctor may recommend that the patient undergo a biopsy. A biopsy is done to take a sample of thyroid tissue and analyzed in the laboratory.

Treatment of Thyroid Disease

The type of treatment for thyroid disease depends on the type and cause. There are three ways that thyroid disease is usually treated, namely:


The medicines given depend on the type of thyroid disease experienced. The function of these drugs is generally to:

  • Replacing thyroid hormone in Dehydration in hypothyroidism
  • Lower thyroid hormone production in the body in hyperthyroidism
  • Destroy thyroid cells

Medication is also given to treat other symptoms, such as lowering an elevated heart rate.

Radioactive iodine therapy

Radioactive iodine or nuclear thyroid therapy is done by injecting radioactive iodine into the body. This iodine will be absorbed by the thyroid gland and then destroy the thyroid tissue that adds to the normal.

O surgery

The most common surgery done to treat thyroid disease is surgical removal of the thyroid gland or thyroidectomy. This procedure is done to remove an enlarged thyroid gland or a lump within the gland.

Some thyroid diseases require combination therapy and sufferers may need to undergo treatment for the rest of their lives. However, with proper treatment, thyroid diseases add up to be life-threatening.

Complications of Thyroid Disease

The complications that can result from thyroid disease depend on the type and cause, including:

Thyroid crisis

Thyroid crisis occurs when hyperthyroidism adds to being treated properly. As a result, thyroid hormone levels in Dehydration becomes high. The condition causes the body's organs to work Herbi quickly, triggering organ failure. Thyroid crisis is an emergency condition that needs to be treated immediately.

Koma m iksedema

Myxedema coma occurs when poorly treated hypothyroidism affects brain function. Just as it appears to be a thyroid crisis in hyperthyroidism, myxedema coma in people with hypothyroidism needs to be treated immediately.

Thyroid Disease Prevention

Thyroid disease prevention measures depend on the cause and risk factors. For example, hypothyroidism due to insufficient iodine intake can be prevented by consuming iodized salt.

While people with diseases that are at risk of causing thyroid disease, such as diabetes and celiac disease, need to see a doctor regularly to monitor the progress of the disease.